Monthly Archives: January 2013

Copiii si uitatul la televizor

http://www.covorasulfermecat.ro/page.php?id=12&s1=58&s2=17

Multi parinti stiu deja ca nu este sanatos sa-si lase copiii sa se uite la televizor mult timp sau sa stea in fata calculatorului. Dar de ce nu este sanatos si ce inseamna “mult timp”?

Efecte negative, pe termen lung, ale uitatului excesiv la televizor si ale jocurilor video:

– probleme comportamentale: copiii care se uita mult la televizor tind sa batjocoreasca alti copii in mai mare masura decat cei care petrec mai putin de 2 ore pe zi in fata ecranului;

– dificultati atentionale si emotionale;

– violenta: expunerea prelungita la programe TV, muzica, jocuri violente pot desensibiliza copiii cu privire la comportamentele agresive. Drept consecinta, ei vor tinde sa accepte violenta ca pe o modalitate normala de a-si rezolva problemele de zi cu zi.

– probleme cu somnul: cu cat copiii se uita mai mult la televizor, cu atat le este mai greu sa adoarma si sa se odihneasca.

– performanta academica: copiii de scoala generala care au televizor la ei in dormitor se descurca mai putin bine la testele scolare decat cei care nu au televizor in camera.

– timp limitat pentru jocuri sociale: daca un copil petrece mult timp in casa, uitandu-se la televizor sau jucandu-se pe calculator, ii mai ramane putin timp pentru jocurile creative, sociale si active. S-a contatat ca uitatul la televizor coreleaza pozitiv cu ingrasatul.

Ce inseamna “mult timp” la televizor?

–          Academia Americana de Pediatrie recomanda parintilor sa nu-si lase copiii pana in doi ani DELOC sa se uite la televizor sau sa stea la calculator.

–          Dupa varsta de 2 ani, copiii se pot uita la programe educationale, nonviolente, adecvate nivelului lor de dezvoltare, dar nu mai mult de 2 ore pe zi.

Am vorbit cu parinti care mi-au spus ca ei stiu ca nu este bine sa lase copilul la televizor sau la calculator mult timp, dar, cu toate acestea, au cedat in fata dorintelor copilului. Mai mult, am observat ca in unele gradinite din Romania sunt educatori care prefera sa lase copiii sa se uite la desene animate mai mult de 30 minute ca sa-i tina linistiti. Oare scopul in educatia unui copil mic este acela de a-l tine cat mai linistit la gradinita si acasa?

Surse:

http://www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/toddlers-and-tv

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/children-and-tv/MY00522/

Draganescu Claudia – psiholog clinician

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Directioneaza 2% pentru copii

http://www.covorasulfermecat.ro/article.php?id=36

 

Doneaza 2% azi, pentru copiii de maine

 

Ca persoană fizică poti dona 2% din impozitul anual pe venit prin completarea Anexei 230 de la formularul de Declaraţie de impozit pe venitul anual si a Formularului 200 –  “Declaratie privind veniturile realizate din Romania”.

Cat te costa?   Nimic!
Această sumă este o parte a bugetului de stat care este direcţionată de către dumneavoastră către o asociaţie sau fundaţie. Astfel te poti implica fără nici un fel de costuri suplimentare, în susţinerea cauzelor noastre sociale.
Formular 230    – “Cerere privind destinatia sumei reprezentând pană la 2% din impozitul anual”  (formularul conţine şi instrucţiuni de completare în pagina 2)
a) se completeaza daca ai doar venituri din salarii. Anul la care se face referire in declaratie este 2012, deoarece se refera la impozitul pe venitul din 2012, conform fisei fiscale. Daca nu cunosti suma corespunzatoare a 2% din impozit, aceasta va fi calculata de catre organele fiscale, aceasta casuta se poate lasa necompletata.
Formular 200   – “Declaratie privind veniturile realizate din Romania”
b) se completeaza daca ai venituri din alte surse
(1) activităţi independente,
(2) cedarea folosinţei bunurilor,
(3) activităţi agricole pentru care venitul net se stabileşte în sistem real,
(4) transferul titlurilor de valoare, altele decât părţile sociale şi valorile mobiliare în cazul societăţilor închise,
(5) operaţiuni de vânzare-cumpărare de valută la termen, pe bază de contract, precum şi orice alte operaţiuni similare, altele decât cele cu instrumente financiare tranzacţionate pe pieţe autorizate şi supravegheate de Comisia Naţională a Valorilor Mobiliare.

Datele Asociatiei Covorasul Fermecat – pentru formular

Asociatia Covorasul Fermecat
CIF 30436487
Cont RO61RNCB0067128666680001 deschis la BCR, Sucursala Doctor Felix, Sector 1, Bucuresti.
Declaraţia se completează de mana înscriind cu majuscule, citeţ şi corect, datele prevăzute de formular. Se completează în două exemplare, din care unul rămâne la contribuabil. Declaraţia se depune direct la registratura organului fiscal sau la oficiul poştal, prin scrisoare recomandată.
Pentru descarcarea formularelor, accesati link-ul original: http://www.covorasulfermecat.ro/article.php?id=36
Aceste formulare se completeaza si se trimit pana la data de 15 mai 2013.

Invatarea limbajului incepe din viata intrauterina

Sursa: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130102083615.htm

Language Learning Begins in Utero, Study Finds; Newborn Memories of Oohs and Ahs Heard in the Womb

Newborns are much more attuned to the sounds of their native language than first thought. In fact, these linguistic whizzes can up pick on distinctive sounds of their mother tongue while in utero, a new study has concluded.


Research led by Christine Moon, a professor of psychology at Pacific Lutheran University, shows that infants, only hours old showed marked interest for the vowels of a language that was not their mother tongue.

“We have known for over 30 years that we begin learning prenatally about voices by listening to the sound of our mother talking,” Moon said. “This is the first study that shows we learn about the particular speech sounds of our mother’s language before we are born.”

Before the study, the general consensus was that infants learned about the small parts of speech, the vowels and the consonants, postnatally. Moon added. “This study moves the measurable result of experience with individual speech sounds from six months of age to before birth,” she said. The findings will be published in Acta Paediatricain late December.

For the study Moon tested newborn infants shortly after birth while still in the hospital in two different locations: Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Wash., and in the Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital in Stockholm. Infants heard either Swedish or English vowels and they could control how many times they heard the vowels by sucking on a pacifier connected to a computer.

Co-authors for the study were. Hugo Lagercrantz, a professor at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden as well as a member of the Nobel Assembly, and Patricia Kuhl, Endowed Chair for the Bezos Family Foundation for Early Childhood Learning and Co-Director of the University of Washington’s Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences.

The study tested newborns on two sets of vowel sounds — 17 native language sounds and 17 foreign language sounds, said Kuhl. The researchers tested the babies’ interest in the vowel sounds based on how long and often they sucked on a pacifier. Half of the infants heard their native language vowels, and the other half heard the foreign vowels. “Each suck will produce a vowel until the infant pauses, and then the new suck will produce the next vowel sound,” said Kuhl.

In both countries, the babies listening to the foreign vowels sucked more, than those listening to their native tongue regardless of how much postnatal experience they had. This indicated to researchers that they were learning the vowel sounds in utero.

“These little ones had been listening to their mother’s voice in the womb, and particularly her vowels for ten weeks. The mother has first dibs on influencing the child’s brain,” said Kuhl. “At birth, they are apparently ready for something novel.”

While other studies have focused on prenatal learning of sentences or phrases, this is the first study to show learning of small parts of speech that are not easily recognized by melody, rhythm or loudness. Forty infants were tested in Tacoma and another 40 in Sweden. They ranged in age from 7 to 75 hours after birth.

Vowel sounds were chosen for the study because they are prominent, and the researchers thought they might be noticeable in the mother’s ongoing speech, even against the noisy background sounds of the womb.

The study shows that the newborn has the capacity to learn and remember elementary sounds of their language from their mother during the last 10 weeks of pregnancy (the sensory and brain mechanisms for hearing are intact at 30 weeks of gestational age).

“This is a stunning finding,” said Kuhl. “We thought infants were ‘born learning’ but now we know they learn even earlier. They are not phonetically naïve at birth.”

Prior to the kinds of studies like this one, , it was assumed that newborns were “blank slates,” added Lagercrantz. He said that although it’s been shown that infants seem to be attuned to sounds of their mother tongue, this same effect now seems to occur before birth. This surprised him.

“Previous studies indicate that the fetus seems to remember musical rhythms,” he said. “They now seem to be able to learn language partially.”

Kuhl added that infants are the best learners on the planet and while understanding a child’s brain capacity is important for science, it’s even more important for the children. “We can’t waste early curiosity.”

“The fact that the infants can learn the vowels in utero means they are putting some pretty sophisticated brain centers to work, even before birth,” she said.